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Transvaginal Mesh: From Approval and Complications to Lawsuits and Settlements

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Transvaginal mesh, also known as pelvic mesh or TVM bladder sling, has been implanted in tens of thousands of women to treat pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Many of those women have suffered severe transvaginal mesh complications, resulting in more than 100,000 defective device lawsuits filed and possibly making the vaginal mesh one of the largest medical device mass torts ever. Transvaginal mesh settlements are ongoing..


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Transvaginal Mesh Complications

Transvaginal mesh was first approved in 1996 to treat pelvic organ prolapse (POP) or stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Since that time the mesh has caused tens of thousands of women to suffer serious TVM side effects, including mesh erosion, organ perforations, and chronic infections. And severe pain. Sometimes the incontinence problem the mesh was supposed to treat worsened after implant.

Some women have undergone multiple surgeries to remove the vaginal mesh, but in some cases the damage has allegedly been permanent. Sometimes the mesh has caused irreversible damage, such as nerve damage. Often the mesh cannot all be removed. In addition to surgery, treatment of complications associated with the mesh can include IV therapy, blood transfusions and drainage of hematomas or abscesses.

Transvaginal mesh is typically made of polypropylene, a synthetic material that has caused chronic foreign body reaction in many patients. This reaction begins with inflammation causing degradation of mesh and further leads to chronic infections.

Transvaginal Mesh Approval

transvaginalmesh The decision to implant mesh vaginally--such as a TVT sling procedure-- rather than inserting the mesh through abdominal incisions was never backed by clinical trials: the FDA did not require transvaginal mesh manufacturers to conduct studies on mesh products in humans before they were implanted.

The 501K clearance process costs manufacturers a user fee of $4,049, payable to the FDA. The mesh was “fast tracked “and products allowed onto the market without any advance safety testing due to a 1976 law. It classified medical devices into three risk categories, with clinical data required only for devices in the highest-risk category, Class III. TVM was classified Class II.

Transvaginal Mesh and FDA Timeline

1970-1996: Surgeons use the mesh abdominally—not vaginally-- to repair POP and SUI.

1996: ProtoGen Sling, the first transvaginal mesh sling device - manufactured by Boston Scientific for the surgical treatment of SUI—is approved through the 510(k) premarket program.

1999: ProtoGen is recalled after the FDA found the device had a “higher than expected rate of vaginal erosion” and did “not appear to function as intended.” Many of the mesh devices on the market today are alleged to have been approved—and not recalled—based on this defective product.

2002: Gynemesh PS, made by Johnson & Johnson’s Ethicon unit, is the first mesh approved for POP repair.

2004: The FDA approves transvaginal mesh "kits" to be implanted vaginally. The kits are marketed as “risk-free” solutions for SUI and POP.

2005: In the Obstetrics & Gynecology Journal safety reviewers found that more than 15 percent of transvaginal mesh patients experienced mesh erosion, which often results in pain and infections. The study concluded that surgeons should be aware of the potential complications of synthetic meshes and “Until data on the safety and efficacy of the intravaginal slingplasties are available, these procedures cannot be recommended.”

2008: FDA alerts the public that TVM mesh surgeries have resulted in serious complications and even death but that complications are rare.

July 2011: FDA upgrades its warning after receiving reports of serious complications and injuries. It now says that complications are not rare and that TVM carried more risks than other surgical options.

August 2011: Consumer advocacy group Public Citizen petitions the FDA to take transvaginal mesh off the market, called it “a ‘poster-child’ example of the fundamental failure ... to protect the public’s health and welfare.”

September 2011: FDA Advisory Obstetrics-Gynecology Devices Panel suggests that TVM implants be reclassified from moderate risk to high risk (Class III), which would mean that manufacturers would have to conduct studies based on human testing.

2012: FDA orders transvaginal mesh manufacturers to study and research the risks associated with their products safety and effectiveness.

2013: FDA issues 95 post-market study orders to 34 manufacturers of POP mesh products and 14 orders to 7 manufacturers of SUI mesh.

C.R. Bard is found negligent in its handling of TVM: it didn’t properly test the products (Avaulta) before putting them on the market. Johnson & Johnson’s Ethicon unit stops selling four lines of vaginal mesh devices and issues an Ethicon transvaginal mesh recall of its Gynecare line of TVM products, though the company maintains that the recall is not safety related.

2014: FDA proposes two orders for transvaginal mesh POP repair to address the risks involved. Once final, manufacturers will be required to provide clinical data in a premarket approval (PMA) application to support the safety and effectiveness of surgical mesh for transvaginal POP. If the orders are finalized and the mesh reclassified as a high-risk device, manufacturers will be required to submit a PMA (510k) application.

2016: FDA reclassifies transvaginal mesh products to treat POP only as Class III “High Risk Devices.” The FDA requires manufacturers to submit a PMA application to support the safety and effectiveness of surgical mesh for the transvaginal repair of POP. Some advocacy groups, such as Public Citizen’s Health Research Group, criticize the FDA for allowing transvaginal mesh on the market. Based on the timeline for the new orders, devices that advocates say are potentially harmful will be able to stay on the market until at least 2018 - almost 10 years after serious complications with transvaginal mesh were first reported.

July 2016: Boston Scientific adds new safety labels to its pelvic meshes and slings, saying they are considered permanent implants and that removal can be complicated or impossible.

July 2018: Deadline for transvaginal mesh manufacturers to submit a PMA application for their devices.

Transvaginal Mesh Lawsuits and Settlements

More than 100,000 lawsuits have been filed against the makers of transvaginal mesh devices alleging the medical devices were defectively designed and caused serious complications. Transvaginal mesh lawsuits claim that Manufacturers/Companies:

  • misled the FDA, medical community and the public at large regarding the safety and efficacy of transvaginal products
  • failed to conduct appropriate testing and research to determine risks of surgical mesh used for female pelvic disorders
  • concealed knowledge that their products could cause permanent and debilitating injuries
  • had a legal duty to insure the safety and effectiveness of their products but provided false and misleading information
  • failed to establish methods that are safe and effective for removal of transvaginal mesh implants

Some lawsuits have been settled or resulted in awards to the plaintiffs, but many claims are still pending. Over 40,000 lawsuits (about 75 percent) have been filed in West Virginia federal court including seven federal multidistrict litigations (MDLs) overseen by Chief Judge Joseph R. Goodwin. The rest are in state courts. Companies involved in the MDL’s include: C.R. Bard; Ethicon Inc. (Johnson & Johnson); American Medical Systems; Coloplast Corp.; Boston Scientific Group; and Cook Medical Inc.

The majority of verdicts have found in favor of victims, some of which have led to multimillion-dollar settlements. Despite Judge Goodwin warning device makers to cut their losses and urging them to settle outstanding claims, avoid massive court costs and even more losses, a few mesh manufacturers such as J&J had been reluctant to settle. Other companies opted to settle cases before trial.

American Medical Systems/ Endo Health Solutions

American Medical Systems faces approximately 46,000 lawsuits in MDL 2325. AMS was the first transvaginal mesh manufacturer to resolve its product liability cases and closed its unit that sells the devices.

To date, AMS is the only company to offer large-scale settlements to end transvaginal mesh litigation. In June 2013, American Medical Systems’ parent company, Endo Health Solutions, agreed to pay $54 million to settle an undisclosed number of mesh lawsuits, and an additional $830 million in 2014. Those settlements typically involve women who have undergone one revision surgery or no revision surgeries to repair damage allegedly caused by the mesh. Women who have undergone two or more revision surgeries have not been included in the settlements so far.

Endo International acquired AMS in 2011. Endo has agreed to pay out roughly $1.5 billion to settle most of the cases claiming injuries from its vaginal mesh devices, which include the Perigee, Apogee and Elevate implants. The company has stopped making AMS transvaginal mesh.

Boston Scientific

Some of 36,000 product liability cases against Boston Scientific have gone to trial. The first federal bellwether trial to go to court resulted in an $18.5 million award to four TVM victims in November 2014. The previous month saw an award of $26.7 million against Boston Scientific regarding its Pinnacle mesh device.

A Boston Scientific settlement in September 2014 totalled $73.4 million in its Obtryx transvaginal sling lawsuit, later reduced to $34 million. Three months later a jury awarded four women a total of $18.5 million and a jury in Florida awarded another four women $26.7 million. As a result of these huge jury verdicts, Boston Scientific has moved to settle remaining cases but still faces approximately 20,000 mesh lawsuits.


The Danish medical device manufacturer Coloplast faces about 2,000 vaginal mesh lawsuits in a consolidated federal multidistrict litigation. In 2014 a $16 million settlement was reached between Coloplast and about 400 vaginal mesh plaintiffs.

C.R. Bard

New Jersey-based C.R. Bard currently faces around 10,000 in MDL 2187. Lawsuits filed against Bard involve the Avaulta transvaginal mesh. Bard is the most recent of many transvaginal mesh settlements. The company agreed to pay more than $200 million to settle 3,000 cases by women injured by Avaulta. Experts predict that most women will take the money, which works out to about $67,000 per case, rather than wait for a trial date.

A series of trials involving Bard’s Avaulta lawsuits began in mid-2013. In the first case, a jury awarded the plaintiff $2 million in damages, including punitive damages. During the first day of trial in the second case, an agreement to settle was reached, avoiding another potentially substantial jury award. The third case was also settled shortly before trial was set to begin. The company has moved to settle some of the vaginal mesh lawsuits that it faces, but more than 10,000 cases remain unresolved.

In its second large-scale mesh settlement, Bard agreed to pay more than $200 million ($67,000 per case) in August 2015 to resolve an estimated 3,000 cases. Legal experts said that the payout was made to avoid a string of multi-million dollar verdicts that could lead to bankruptcy for Bard. In October 2014 Bard agreed to pay more than $21 million to settle over 500 mesh lawsuits, averaging $43,000 per claim.

In April 2016 Judge Joseph Goodwin dismissed nearly 150 product liability lawsuits brought against Bard with prejudice, meaning they cannot be appealed, writing that “all claims have been compromised and settled,” according to court documents. Terms of the settlements were not disclosed.

Ethicon/Johnson & Johnson

Johnson & Johnson subsidiary, Ethicon faces 33,000 lawsuits in MDL 2327. Ethicon makes the Gynecare mesh products. In early 2014, Ethicon came under fire for negligently destroying thousands of documents related to the development of some of its vaginal mesh products.

In 2013, a jury ordered Ethicon to pay $11.11 million to Linda Gross for her injuries—she underwent 18 revision surgeries. Unfortunately, revision surgery doesn’t guarantee that all symptoms will disappear. In September 2014, a plaintiff was awarded more than $3 million in her lawsuit against Ethicon. In March 2015, Ethicon was ordered by pay $5.7 million to plaintiff Coleen Perry, who suffered severe complications after being implanted with its TVT Abbrevo vaginal sling .

By January 2016 and after a number of plaintiff awards, J&J agreed to pay $120 million to settle 2,000-3,000 mesh lawsuits. A regulatory filing at the time showed that J&J still faced more than 42,000 mesh cases. In April a $5 million settlement recently became public, divulging how much it could cost to resolve the claims.


Medtronic Inc., bought Covidien Plc in 2014 in an effort to help it compete with Johnson & Johnson. In a June 2015 SEC filing the company said that its Covidien unit was involved in nearly 11,500 mesh lawsuits. Covidien supplied the mesh to Bard, and was also included in the dismissals with Bard in 2016 (above). Medtronic set aside $180 million in 2015 to settle an undisclosed number of mesh cases.

Mentor O.B. Tape

Mentor O.B Tape vaginal sling was removed from the market in 2006 due to a design defect, just three years after its approval. After several years of litigation settlements have been reached in most Mentor OB Tape lawsuits, including a $4.4 million jury award to Florida resident Tessa Taylor in February 2016.


Neomedic International, a Spanish medical device maker, faces around 130 mesh lawsuits as part of a federal mass tort centralized in West Virginia. The company in December 2015 paid $2.19 million to settle an undisclosed number of mesh lawsuits.

Tissue Fixation System (TFS)

Lawsuits have been filed against Tissue Fixation System (TFS), a pelvic mesh tape that is used to treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP). The lawsuits allege that TFS Manufacturing Pty and TFS Surgical (US) aggressively marketed their Tensioned Mini-Sling with Anchors while exaggerating the product's safety.

The number of transvaginal mesh lawsuits has now increased to more than 100,000 in the United States, and more than 135,000 worldwide. Given the number of injured women and subsequent lawsuits, it’s likely a matter of time until these mesh devices are permanently taken off the market.

Transvaginal Mesh Legal Help

If you or a loved one has suffered damages in a Transvaginal Mesh case, please click the link below and your complaint will be sent to a Medical Device lawyer who may evaluate your claim at no cost or obligation.
Last updated on



The FDA Pulls (Most) Vaginal Mesh Products off the Market – Now What?
The FDA Pulls (Most) Vaginal Mesh Products off the Market – Now What?
May 22, 2019
Philadelphia, PA: The FDA has finally ordered the last two medical device companies selling transvaginal mesh products to pull them from the market. The agency said it is “committed to patient safety” but hundreds of thousands of women –victims of surgical mesh--would disagree. And the lawsuits are still pouring in READ MORE

Multidistrict Surgical Mesh Lawsuit Awards and Settlements Approach $11 Billion
Multidistrict Surgical Mesh Lawsuit Awards and Settlements Approach $11 Billion
March 13, 2019
Charleston, WV As the nation’s largest mass tort product liability lawsuit winds to a close, those who have suffered from surgical mesh complications and their attorneys are pausing to take stock. Not everyone is happy READ MORE

Indiana Woman Wins $35 Million in Johnson & Johnson Transvaginal Mesh Lawsuit
Indiana Woman Wins $35 Million in Johnson & Johnson Transvaginal Mesh Lawsuit
March 18, 2018
Chicago, ILOn the advice of her doctor, Barbara Kaiser had Prolift pelvic mesh implanted in 2009 to treat her pelvic organ prolapse. She then began to suffer from low pelvic pain. It was only years later that she learned that this was likely a transvaginal mesh complication. Her doctor never told her about this and he, himself, claims to have not been aware of all of the risks, including the danger of severe and irreversible injury to his patients READ MORE


Posted by

I secured an attorney to represent me and my mesh case. We were at the November mediation in W. Virginia along with many other women and attorneys.
My attorney supposedly came to an agreement with Bard, however, I still have not received anything in writing to confirm the agreement and the compensation.

I am concerned my attorney has not represented me in an acceptable manner.

Can I secure another attorney?

Posted by

My name is Michelle I have been having abdominal cramps servers for 3years to the point it effects me daily ,I have other medical issues as well fibromyalgia being one,I have been blaming the mesh and never had cramps during any periods I have had in my life for about 6 years they have been getting worse.I have been from Dr. To Dr. And no one has a answer to why ,I have been through ALL kinds of tests over and over No Answers,it must be fibromyalgia ,I don't believe it is .I had my mesh put in during 2004 and the sling in 2006 when I still had bladder leakage .I have NEVER in my life called 911 with these cramps til last Tuesday June 20 ,2017 I woke up and the cramps were so bad I couldn't drive .when the E.M.T took my blood pressure I was 180/90.I'm always 120/70 .the more I move the worse it gets ,in the hospital they did blood work ,blood desire and kept me to manage pain ,it's been a week and they are getting a lot stronger again.I have to go into operating room with the Dr. That put in mesh an sling with a general surgeon to see what is hit me the other day that I have been sent to a cancer Dr.twice in 18 months my white blood cells went from 13.6,15.7,17.8 no one mentioned a infection in my body I'm guessing if not cancer and they can't find a problem it must be the mesh and sling .Has anyone had the same problem? All I know is when I go in O.R I went these devices out sick of years of cramping ,these are worse than when my appendix came out 2 hours after cramps

Posted by

most of you are lucky i cant find a dr to do anything i have constant pain i take medication for pain and to relax my bladder but nothing is wrong right. The doc that put mine in waited just long enough laughed and told me to sue him and quit treating me. No one else will go behind him because they dont see it as life threatening yet. But they dont feel the pain Im in on a daily basis

Posted by

The hideous head scratcher:
Regardless of the manufacturer's name, the multiple injuries, the suffering of the women involved with these class action monetary awards.... We each will be lucky to be paid $50 or less... someday.
One more slap in the face.

Posted by

Pelvic pain frequent burning throbbing intense hot flashes not to mention no intercourse because of pain and they wanna send me to a gynacologists who knows nothing of repairing the damage thats done. No doctors in St. Louis area know how to fix the problem. And yet no date set for trial hummmm makes me wonder whats going on what`s the holdup Ethicon??? You destroyed records you knew would help us. We are the victims here while you keep getting a slap on the wrist and keep producing products that don`t work. You should be shamed and I can`t wait for my date in court with you all.

Posted by

I had mesh put in during a hysterectomy in 2003. I have had nothing but problems ever since! I dont know what has been worse, the daily pain that makes life so hard that if I didnt have my kids and husband I honestly would rather die ! OR that since complications from the first surgery back in 03 led to severl more surgeries over just the next few weeks that at the age of 30, having never before even taking 1 pain pill in my life, i became addicted to pain pills which led to severe opiate addiction. I tried , unseccesfully for years to get help for addiction and now am a heroin addict. I have been to jail and am currently on probation. Before this I owned my own business and was a single mother doing very well taking care of myself and kids. Now I am looked at as a no good , loser drug addict. And to add insult to injury I have begged for help from my doctors but no matter how bad my pain is and how permanent it is, NONE of my doctors will help me with any pain managment so im left with no choice but to self medicate. Please dont judge me, I have tried and still trying to get help the right way and am having my next surgery in 2 weeks. I have had 2 open wounds in pelvic area where mesh is hanging out of my body for 2 years now that drain infection and urine 24 hours a day. I have 2 holes in my urethria that doctors said they cannot fix EVER that I will leak pee forever. I have constant UTIs. I have not slept well in 10 years because all night every night even if I do fall asleep, I wake up 1 to 2 times at a minimum to pee. No sleep = terrible days! I could go on and on listing the pain and the problems from this mesh both physical and emotional but I think I got my point across. This mesh has definatly made my life a NIGHTMARE!!!

Posted by

To all comments,
I was told that no other specialist but a Urogynecologist should be messing with the mesh. Not all specialist are trained to remove this type of mesh and since it has decided to became a part of us. It needs to be treated with kid gloves.
I have heard of one of these specialist in the Orlando florida area that Im looking at very closely to get mine removed, but Im gun shy so I will be doing a lot of research!
Thanks FDA for making our lives like a living hell! You knew there was not enough research being done on this and you put it out anyway! And still have it out on the shelves with a warning label??? REALLY!!!!
The manufactures should just have the same surgery as ours being told as they told the doctors how great it is and will make like so easier and see what hell they have to live with.
Better yet just ask them if they would put one inside their body! I guarantee you they would say no!!!

Posted by

After having my 3rd son I fought incontinence for a couple of years, always peeing on myself in most all circumstances. My relationship with my husband suffered because I was always concerned about a possible smell so I decided to have the sling surgery, I was given NO warnings just a simple surgery well after that my problems only got worst and over the following year the sling started to prolapse severely. I could not even think about intercourse and still had to wear a pad all the time. well I had to have corrective surgery and when did they replaced that sling with another recalled one and it did the same with even worst side effects. I suffered, my family suffered, my career as a nurse suffered, my kids suffered. until I had to have another surgery to fix the last one and since then for the pas t3 years I have been better. This has been the worst years of my family's life and my pain is put behind me now.

Posted by

Hi, in 2008 Dr. S & Dr. P performed {according to my ppwk} a TVT SECUR then a bilateral iliococcygeal fixation w/mesh placement, anterior & posterior colpoperineorrhaphy w/cystoscopy.

After that surgery, I had so many problems. I never stopped bleeding. I was bleeding through my rectum, I always hurt during sex. I kept having to go back to Dr S because there was one place that she kept saying that just would not heal. She would cauterize it. Finally after about 1 1/2 I finally went to another Dr because it seemed I just was not getting any help from her. This new Dr removed it right away. That was in I think 2009/2010.

To this day I still bleed from a spot that has not healed. I have over the yrs had that same spot cauterized to no avail. I was told last year there isn't any skin in that area left to cauterized. I made an appt last week with another Dr, she said she think she sees a piece of mesh still left, so I have an appt for next month set up to have it looked at. So this has been going on for 7 yrs.

Posted by

I was very upset to know a Doctor would gut me open and poison my body . As a mother of 3, 1 grand daughter and a wonderful marriage of 25 years I wish this had Never happened. And now to learn that a judge of the United States of America has be Ignored by Billion Dollar Coporations that payed Doctors to Slaughter my body as if I was a test dummies, better yet a Guinea Pig for profit is a Crime. Not Only the Doctors ,but the CEO's, Head of FDA , and lets not forget Hospitals , should be Prosecuted and send the prison . The law states that when a Crime has been committed and you are found guilty then you go to prison or executed. Because Billions of dollars are on hand then it's an excuse to comment a crime . Well 5 .7 million is not by any means enough per women to cover up a excuse of this Size. These Corporation have billions in insurance to cover lawsuits of this statue. Attorneys need to stop pretending this is not a major problem. The asbestos and cigarettes lawsuits slaughtered people live their's no difference. I want 1 Billion Dollars from Johnson and Johnson (ethicon) , The Hospital, The Doctors and Medical Association and their Administration, The Polypropylene maker that decided to design such a product (knowing) it was never meant for a human because the way it was designed. The Investors that believed in this lie. And Last but not lest The United State Government . You all (know)willingly Vaginal Mesh products was a Hindus Crime .And you All have to Pay in full. Remember What Goes Around Comes Around. Do unto others as you would have them to do unto you. Your Time is Up !!!!

Posted by

Mesh erosion and issues with intercourse.

Posted by

I have been suffering from serve UTIs for a long time. I have recently had three in the past two months. My doctor is now refering me to a urologist to have this checked out to see if it is the mesh sling.

Posted by


Posted by

i had a hysterectomy in June 05. I have slight incontinence and the recommended a mesh sling. A year later i would wake up with a burning pain in my pelvic area, then i started getting bladder infections. A cystoscopy was done, the urologist insisted nothing was wrong with the sling. Xrays now show the mesh has embedded itself in my pubic bone and it would be impossible to remove. I have pelvic pain daily, take pain medicine and am getting steroid injections.
This has been an emotional and physical nightmare. it is the biggest regret of my life because it cannot be undone, it will be a problem the rest of my life. The FDA should not allow such a high risk device to be put in the human body, anyone who has the sling is never out of danger.

Posted by

In 2006 I had a partial hysterectomy & a bladder sling put in. I had to have emergency surgery the next day for bleeding out. I was sent home 3 days later. I started having severe pain 4. Days later, I was rushed to the emergency room & admitted, they did all kind of year tests including ct scans everyday which looked like trash bags filled with air then tied into knots. I was then flown to BJC in St. Louis, 12 hours later they. Were rushing me to surgery, breathing for me, after 16 hours in the o.r., they told my husband they had no excuse as to why I was still alive. I lost all but 14 1\2 " of. Intestines, I'm now permanently. On TPN to feed me and keep me alive this is all because of organ prolapse from NY bladder along I had put in in 06. Don't get this surgery it will ruin your life, it sure did mine.

Posted by

My life has begin too fall apart. I walk with a cane. I have no collagen lefted in my stomach. Everyday I wish I could Died. Vaginal mesh is the worst product know to the human race. The FDA ALLOWED THIS TO HAPPEN. THE FDA SHOULD BE SUED!!!!!

Posted by

I have had lower pain/discomfort in my abdomen ever since I had the mesh/sling, just always thought it was normal...didn't realize it wasn't until a friend saw the add on TV and told me that I should check into this.

Posted by

I have constant discomfort in the lower abdomen and lower back, and part of the mesh has torn away and caused a hole in my cervix. I am now scheduled for surgery to remove the exposed mesh and repair the hole, hopefully. Have been told that ongoing problems may occur.

Posted by

There is unremitting pain in the area of my urethra. This pain limits the sexual act between my husband and me, prevents me from walking, riding a bike, or just sitting comfortably. There has also been constant bloody discharge from the area around my urethra.

Posted by

No sex since surgery in 2005 (too painful), therefore, no relationships. Leakage, urgency, slow stream, UTI's, bladder infections, trouble emptying, discharge/infections, pain when sitting or walking at times. My doctor said that the type of mesh I received cannot be removed.

Posted by

cutting excrutiating pain when standing and walking, couldn't void so had to self catheterize until 4 months after procedure when mesh had eroded through the urethra making it impossible to thread catheter, have not been able to have sex with husband since procedure 7 years ago.

Posted by

frequent back, abdomen and vaginal pain. Daily vaginal discharge and pain/pressure during urination and painful intercourse.

Posted by

If I am not taking an antibiotic on a daily basis, I will develop a urinary tract infection. Have had a second surgery to loosen the tape because it prevents me from being able to empty my bladder. Second surgery was unsuccessful so I am scheduled to see a specialist at MUSC on August 17th to determine a new course of action, which may include removal of the sling.


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