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Other violations of labor laws included working off the clock, working despite injury and suffering from retaliation for complaining about violations of labor laws. Approximately 20 percent of the interview subjects who received tips in their employment said employers or supervisors took part or all of their tips.
According to the study, the violations occurred in large and small companies and across a variety of industries. The study was limited to Los Angeles County, but researchers predicted that the results would be similar in outlying areas.
"In nearly every case, the violation rates are higher in Los Angeles than in New York and Chicago," the authors write. They note that part of the reason for this is that some sectors in the Los Angeles economy—such as garment manufacturing and construction—routinely violate labor laws. What's more, very few low-wage workers in Los Angeles have union representation.
The California study is part of a larger study that examines low-wage workers in Los Angeles, New York and Chicago.